Cone crushers are popular rock crushing machines in aggregates production, mining operations, and recycling applications. They are normally used in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary crushing stages. However, in cases where the grain size of the processed material is small enough by nature and the traditional primary crushing stage is not needed, also cone crushers can carry out the first stage of the crushing process.
Cone crushers are very suitable for size reduction and shaping in the downstream of a crushing circuit. A cone crusher operates on a compression type of mechanism that reduces material by compressing and squeezing the feed material between a moving element (mantle) and a stationary element (bowl liner). Final sizing and reduction are determined via the closed side setting or the gap between the two crushing members at the lowest point.
Pre-crushed material fed in via the top of the cone crusher flows over the mantle while the vertical cone crusher drive shaft rotates the mantle. The mantle performs eccentric movements under the concave (also called bowl liner), so squeezing & crushing the material between the cone crusher mantle and concave. In general, a cone crusher runs on V-belts driven by an electric motor or diesel engine. Cone crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which allows adjusting the crusher settings to fully match the material, feed size, and capacity requirements.
A cone crusher is suitable for crushing a variety of mid-hard and above mid-hard ores and rocks. It has the advantage of reliable construction, high productivity, better granularity and shape of finished products, easy adjustment and lower operational costs. Successful application of a cone crusher within a crushing circuit is measured by the amount of material passing through the cone, the power draw of the machine, the size distribution of the products coming out of the circuit and the shape of the product.
Cone crushers today have increased performance capabilities as compared to the first cone crushers developed in the mid-1920’s. Not only do the cone crushers today have more power capability; they are larger in size with higher capacities, offer better product shape, and a higher percentage of final product yield.
Development in cone crusher technology has evolved to include computer controls to maximize and optimize the cone crusher performance based on application requirements. Modern solid state devices provide real time feedback from the cone crusher such as power draw, cavity level, crushing force, lubricating oil flows, temperatures, pressures, and filter conditions. The information provides inputs into computer controls which in turn can vary the feed rates and crusher setting to maximize the cone crusher performances accordingly.